:: Zaman kanak2 Pak Ngah dulu... banyak permainan "percuma" yang boleh dimainkan untuk keseronokan, persahabatan, mengisi masa senggang dan mengeluarkan peluh... kini kanak2 agak tidak kreatif dalam penciptaan mainan sendiri... mungkin akibat ledakan teknologi maklumat dan alatan mainan yang banyak di pasaran.
:: Antara mainan popular dulu2 ialah main "aci2" dan "aci" jugak mempunyai maksudnya yang tersendiri... dan "tak aci" pulak ada maknanya.
:: Fokus di sini ialah tentang rokok... jenis rokok... gemar merokok... faeadah merokok... nikmat merokok... dll yang berkaitan dengan rokok ini.
:: Kita baru je menamatkan puasa ramadhan... dan insyaAllah akan di sambung pulak dengan puasa 6 di bulan Syawal ini. Aktiviti merokok dapat dikurangkan sepanjang bulan Ramadhan yang lalu... dan adalah diharap agar peminat rokok dan para penggemar rokok itu... mempunyai azam yang kuat... untuk berhenti merokok. Tak aci le... jika sepanjang bulan Ramadhan... bilangan batang rokok dapat dikurangkan bilangannya... tapi bila Syawal menjelma... aktiviti merokok kembali kepada asal. Tak aci le...
YOURHEALTH: Reason to quit smoking, drinking
ANNIE FREEDA CRUEZ
If you are a high tobacco user or drink alcohol, you are at high risk of oral cancer. ANNIE FREEDA CRUEZ finds out that many Malaysians die because they seek treatment late.
IF you smoke, don’t. If you drink, you might want to cut down on the alcohol. Medical experts say a person has a higher risk of oral cancer if he or she smokes and drinks.
Smoking is tobacco usage, and it includes cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco and taking snuff. Smoking bidi and kretek may also increase the risk.
People who drink regularly are more likely to develop oral cancer than those who don’t. The risk increases with the amount that a person consumes.
The risk increases even more if the person smokes and drinks.
Therefore, if you are craving for a smoke, eat a slice of mango or nibble on a carrot instead.
Studies suggest that a diet of lots of fruits and vegetables may prevent the development of oral cancer.
In Malaysia, a total of 21,464 oral cancer cases was diagnosed in 2003.
According to the National Cancer Registry, oral cancer was the sixth and third most common form of cancers among Indian men and women, respectively.
Data from different hospitals in Malaysia from 1994 to 1998 has shown that incidence of oral cancer was highest among ethnic Indians, followed by the indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak, Malay and Chinese.
Kuala Lumpur Hospital’s Department of Oral Surgery head Dr Wan Mahadzir Wan Mustafa says the number of oral cancer cases has increased over the year s.
The death rate associated with oral cancer, says Dr Wan Mahadzir, is particularly high due to the cancer being routinely discovered late.
“Often, it is only discovered when the cancer has metastasised to another location, most likely to the lymph nodes of the neck. Prognosis at this stage of discovery is significantly worse than when it is detected in a localised area.” Besides the metastasis, at these later stages, he says, the primary tumour has had time to invade deep into local structures.
Oral cancer is particularly dangerous because it has a high risk of producing second primary tumours.
This means that patients whosurvive a first encounter with the disease have up to a 20 times higher risk of developing a second form of cancer.
This heightened risk factor can last for five to 10 years after the first occurrence.
Dr Wan Mahadzir says when is detected late, the treatment becomes more difficult as it involves surgery, radiation therapy, drugs and chemotherapy.
“As a result of the delay, some cases cannot be treated successfully although treatment is administered aggressively.
“If they come early in Stages 1 or 2, the result is much better and they can survive for five years or more.” A team of highly trained and qualified doctors and staff from the Departments of Oral Surgery, Oncology and Ear, Nose and Throat treat and attend to patients with oral cancer.
This is because t r e at m e n t m ay include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments.
Dr Wan Mahadzir says cancer of the lip can be caused by exposure to the sun and that using a lotion or lip balm that has sunscreen can reduce the risk.
Wearing a hat with a brim can also block the sun’s harmful rays. The risk of cancer of the lip increases if the person also smokes.
People who have had head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing another primary head and neck cancer.
Dr Wan Mahadzir says oral cancer often starts as a tiny, unnoticed white or red spot or sore anywhere in the mouth.
“It can affect any area of the oral cavity including the lips, gum tissue, check lining, tongue and the hard or soft palate.” Other signs, he says, include a sore that bleeds easily or does not heal, a colour change of the oral tissues, a lump, a thickening and rough spot, crust or small eroded area, pain, tenderness, or numbness anywhere in the mouth or on the lips, difficulty chewing, swallowing, speaking or moving the jaw or tongue.
“One of the real dangers of this cancer is that in its early stages it can go unnoticed.”
Getting to know all about oral cancer
ORAL Cancer Week in Malaysia falls on Nov 12 to 18.
It is being organised by the Department of Oral Surgery and other organisations, including University of Malaya’s Oral Cancer Research & Coordinating Centre (UM-OCRCC) at the Faculty of Dentistry, University Malaya.
Kuala Lumpur Hospital’s Department of Oral Surgery head, Dr Wan Mahadzir Wan Mustafa, says there is a need to create awareness among the public about mouth cancer.
“There is a need to disseminate information to the public, and to oral cancer patients who are trying to gain a better understanding of their illness.” Oral cancer is an abnormal growth found in the mouth and the malignancy can be detected during routine examination.
The tumours can be either benign or malignant.
Symptoms for oral cancer include patches inside the mouth or on lips that are white, a mixture of red and white, or red.
White patches are the most common and can sometimes become malignant. Mixed red and white patches are likelier to be malignant than white patches. Red patches are smooth areas that often become malignant.
Other symptoms are a sore on your lip or in your mouth that won ’t heal, bleeding in the mouth, loose teeth, difficulty or pain when swallowing or wearing dentures, a lump in the neck and an earache.
Dr Wan Mahadzir urges anyone with these symptoms to see a doctor or dentist as early as possible. However, these symptoms do not necessarily mean cancer.
Specialists who treat oral cancer include oral and maxillofacial surgeons, otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat doctors), medical oncologists, radiation oncologists and plastic surgeons.
You may be referred to a team that includes specialists in surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.